Jung, the son of a church minister, was born in Basel. As a boy, he developed a lifelong interest in superstition, mythology, and the occult. In 1895, Jung entered the University of Basel to study archaeology. However, his interests changed, and he qualified as a doctor at the University of Zurich in 1902. He began to
practice psychiatry in Basel.
Early in his career, Jung used Freud's psychoanalytical theories. The two met in 1907. They became close, and Jung participated in the psychoanalytical movement. Later, Jung began to believe Freud placed too much importance on sexual instincts in human
behaviour. Jung's de-emphasis of sexuality led to a break with Freud, and their friendship ended in 1913. Jung became a professor of medical psychology at the University of Basel in 1943.
Jung used the terms introvert and extrovert to classify people. Introverts depend mainly on themselves to satisfy their needs. Extroverts seek the company of other individuals for personal
fulfilment. Jung taught that therapists should help patients balance the two personality types in themselves.
Jung thought that many factors besides sex stimulate human behaviour. He believed the personalities of parents are major influences on a child. Unlike Freud, Jung taught that sexuality does not become important until just before young people reach puberty.
Jung, like Freud, believed that the unconscious part of the mind contains personal drives and experiences of which an individual is not aware. But Jung also thought that the members of every race share a deeper level of unconsciousness, which he called the collective unconscious. According to Jung, the collective unconscious includes thought patterns called archetypes, which have developed through the centuries. Jung thought archetypes enable people to react to situations in ways similar to their ancestors. For this reason, Jung believed that the collective unconscious contains wisdom that guides all humanity. He thought therapy should bring people in contact with the collective unconscious.
Jung's studies of mythology convinced him that archetypes of gods and supernatural powers are deeply rooted in the collective unconscious. He believed religion plays a major role in human life by enabling people to express an unconscious need for religious experience.