Psychology - Optional
Part B - Main Examination
Foundations of Psychology
1. Introduction : Psychology as a Science :
Definitions and perspective. Psychology in relation to other social and
natural sciences. Use of interdiciplinary approach.
2. Methods of Psychology : Characteristics and
componets of methods in psychology (induction, deduction and introspection).
Observation, Survey, Laboratory and field experiments. Clinical and Case
study. Experimental and quasi experimental methods.
3. Research methods and quantitative analysis :
Major steps in psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis
formulation, research design, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and
interpretation and report writing). Fundamental versus applied research.
Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire and case
study). Research Designs (Ex-post facto and experimental). Application of
statistical techniques (t-test, one-way ANOVA correlation and regression and
4. Development of Human Behaviour : The nature,
origin and development. Role of genetic and environmental factors in
determining human behaviour. Influence of cultural factors and socialisation.
Life span development-the critical periods and their handling, Mastery of the
developmental tasks. Influence of child rearing practices and its impact on
the growth and development of the individual, concept of national character.
5. Attention and perception : Attention - factors,
influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus.
Sensation-concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal
detection and vigilance. Definition and concept of perception, biological
factors in perception. Perceptual organisation-influence of past experiences,
Perceptual defence-factors influencing. Space and depth perception, size
estimation and perceptual readiness.
6. Learning : Concepts and theories of learning
(Pavlov, Skimer and Piaget). The processes of extinction, discrimination and
generalisation. Programmed learning, probability learning, self instructional
learning, concepts, types and the schedules of reinforcement. Modelling and
7. Memory : Concepts and definition of memory and
forgetting, 7+/-2 concept and clumking Encoding, storage and retrieval.
Factors influencing retention and foregetting. Theories of forgetting
(Repression, Decay and Interference theories). The concept of reminiscence.
8. Thinking and Problem Solving : Concept formation
processes. Resoning and problem solving. Creative thinking and fostering
creativity. Information processing. Decision making and judgement.
9. Intelligence and Aptitude : Concept and
definition of Intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence.
Measurement of Intelligence and aptitude Concepts and measurement of emotional
and multiple intelligence.
10. Motivation and Emotion : Definition and
concepts. Theories and physiological basis of motivation and emotion.
Measurement of motivation and emotion Motivation and emotion-their effects on
11. Personality : Concept and definition of
personality. Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, socio-cultural,
interpersonal and developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type
approaches). Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper tet).
The Indian approach to Personality. Training for personality development.
12. Language and Communication : Human
language-properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language
acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis. Theories of language
development (Skinner, Chomsky), Process and types of communication. Effective
communication and training.
13. Attitudes, Values and Interests : Definitions,
concepts of attitudes, values and interests. Components ofattitudes, values
and interests. Formation and maintenance of attitudes. Measurement of
attitudes, values and interests. Theories of attitudes, and attitudes changes,
strategies for fostering values.
14. Recent Trends : Computer application in the
Psychological laboratory and psychological testing. Articial Intelligence.
Psychocybernetics. Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams,
stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnoti c/drug induced states. Extrasensory
perception. Intersensory perception Simulation studies.
Psychology : Issues and Applications
1. Psychological Measurement of Individual Diference :
The nature of individual differences. Characteristics and construction of
standardized psychological tests. Types of psychological tests. Use, misuse
and limitation of psychological tests. Ethical issues in the use of
2. Well being and Mental Disorders : Concept of
health, positive health, well being and ill health. Mental disorders (Anxiety
disorders, mood disorders, schizophernia and delusional disorders; personality
disorders, substance abuse disorders). Causal factors in mental disorders.
Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of
3. Therapeutic Approaches : Psychody-namic
therapies. Behaviour therapies. Client centered therapy. Cognitive therapies.
Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Reiki, Meditation) Biofeedback therapy. Prevention
and rehabilitation of the mentally ill.
4. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour :
Personnel selection and training. Use of Psychological tests in the industry.
Training and human resource development. Theories of work motivation.
Leadership and participatory management. Advertising and marketing.
5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field :
Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning
process.Learning styles Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their
training. Training for improving memory and better academic achievement.
Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance
and Career counselling. Use of Psychological tests in educational
6. Communty Psychology : Definition and concept of
Community Psychology. Role of community psychologists in social change. Use of
small groups in social action. Arousing community consciousness and action for
handling social problems. Group decision making and leadership for social
7. Rehabilitation Psychology : Primary, secondary
and tertiary prevention programmes-role of psychologists. Organising of
services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged
persons including old persons. Rehabilitation of persons suffering from
substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviours. Rehabilitation of
victims of violence. Rehabiliation of HIV/.AIDS victims.
8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups :
The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation and socially deprived. Social,
physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived
groups. Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development.
9. Psychological and the problem of social integration :
The concept of social integration. The problem of caste, class, religion
and language conflicts and prejudice. Nature and manifestation of prejudice
between the ingroup and outgroup. Casual factors of such conflicts and
prejudices. Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and
prejudices. Measures to achieve social integration.
10. Application of psychology in Information Technology
and Mass media : The present scenario of information technology and the
mass media boom and the role of psychologists. Selection and training of
psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media. Distance
learning through IT and mass media. Entrepre neurship through e-commerce.
Multilevel marketing. Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass
media. Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information
11. Application of Psychology in the field of Defence :
The concept of Military psychology, Aviation psychology and Pschological
warfare Role of Military psychologists in the defence. Selection, recruitment
and training of personnel. Facilitating the process of adjustment of personnel
to military life-Role of Counselling. Devising Psychological tests for defence
personnel. Psychological disorders due to war. Human engineering in Defence.
12. Psychology and Economic develoment : Achievemnt
motivation ad economic development. Characteristics of entrepreneurial
behaviour. Motivating and Training people for entrepreneurship and economic
development. Women Entrepreneurs. Consumer rights and consumer courts.
13. Application of psychology to enviroment and related
fields : Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and
crowding. Population psychology-psychological consquences of population
explosion and high population density. Motivating for small family norms.
Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of
14. Other applications of psychology : Sports
psychology-improving performance of sports, personnel, psychology and
understanding of political behaviour. Voting behaviours. Psychology of
corruption and strategies to deal with Psychology of terrorism.